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Knowledge In English

Cookery Science And Principles


Cookery Science And Principles

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It is not enough to give healthy and proper food; it must also be prepared in such a way that it increases rather than decreases its nutritional worth. Unhealthiness in food is frequently caused by poor cooking as well as faulty material selection.

Proper cooking makes good food more digestible. Cooking, when done scientifically, changes each of the food elements, with the exception of fats, in much the same way that digestive juices do, while also breaking up the food by dissolving the soluble portions, allowing the digestive fluids to act on its elements more easily.

Cookery, on the other hand, frequently falls short of its goals, and even the best ingredients might be turned worthless and unhealthy due to faulty preparation.

It is rare to encounter a table on which some portion of the food has not been turned unwholesome either to faulty preparation or the addition of some harmful chemical.

This is undoubtedly due to the fact that food preparation is such a commonplace matter that its importance to health, mind, and body has been overlooked, and it has been regarded as a menial service that can be performed with little or no preparation, and with no regard for matters other than those relating to the pleasure of the eye and palate.

With taste as the sole criterion, it is so easy to conceal the results of sloppy and bad food preparation through the use of flavors and condiments, as well as to foist inferior material on the digestive organs, that poor cooking has become the norm rather than the exception.

Methods of cooking.

Cookery is the art of preparing food for the table through dressing or the use of heat in some form. Once a proper source of heat has been acquired, the following step is to apply it to the food in some way. The most frequent cooking methods are roasting, broiling, baking, boiling, stewing, simmering, steaming, and frying.

Roasting involves cooking food in its own juices over an open fire. Broiling or grilling is a method of cooking that uses radiant heat. This method is only applicable to thin portions of food with a lot of surface area.

Larger, more compact meals should be roasted or baked. Roasting and broiling are similar in principle. In both cases, the work is primarily done by the radiation of heat directly onto the surface of the meal, while some heat is transferred by the heated air surrounding it.

The strong heat applied to the meal quickly burns its exterior surfaces, preventing the escape of its juices. If the food is turned frequently such that its entire surface is exposed to this action, the inside of the mass is cooked by its own juices.

Baking is the process of cooking food using dry heat in a closed oven. Only items with a high moisture content are suitable for cooking with this method. The hot, dry air that fills the oven is always thirsty for moisture, and it will extract a proportional amount of water from any moist object to which it has access.

Foods with little moisture, either covered from the action of the heated air or moistened throughout the cooking process, come out of the oven dry, hard, and unappealing.

Boiling refers to the process of cooking food in a boiling liquid. Water is the most commonly used medium for this purpose. When water is heated, as its temperature rises, it emits minute bubbles of air that it has dissolved.

As the temperature rises, steam bubbles will form at the bottom of the jar. At first, these will be condensed as they rise into the cooler water above, making a simmering sound; however, as the heat increases, the bubbles will rise higher and higher before collapsing, and in a short time will pass entirely through the water, escaping from its surface, causing more or less agitation depending on how quickly they form. Water boils when the bubbles rise to the surface and emit steam.

Rapid bubbling increases the mechanical action of the water but not the heat; hence boiling anything violently does not speed up the cooking process, except that the mechanical motion of the water breaks the food into smaller pieces, which are then easier to soften.

However, violent boiling wastes a lot of fuel and makes the food much less appetizing, if not tasteless, by removing the volatile and flavorful ingredients with the steam. Heat increases the solvent capabilities of water, allowing it to enter the food and soften its hard and harsh elements, making them easier to digest.

Water and milk are the most commonly used liquids while cooking dishes. Most meals are best cooked with water, but for farinaceous foods like rice, macaroni, and farina, milk, or at least a portion of milk, is preferable since it increases their nutritional worth.

When cooking with milk, keep in mind that because it is denser than water, less steam escapes when heated, and as a result, it boils faster. Furthermore, because milk is denser than water, it requires somewhat more fluid when used alone for cooking.

Steaming, as the name implies, is the process of preparing food using steam. There are numerous methods for steaming food, the most common of which is to place it in a perforated dish over a pot of boiling water.

This approach is superior than boiling for foods that do not require the solvent properties of water or that already have a high moisture content. Another method of cooking, known as steaming, involves placing the meal, with or without water, in a closed vessel that is then placed inside another vessel holding boiling water.

Such a device is known as a double boiler. Food cooked in its own juices in a covered dish in a hot oven is commonly referred to as “steamed” or “smothered.”

Stewing is the extended simmering of food in a little quantity of liquid at a temperature slightly below boiling. Stewing should not be confused with simmering, which is a slow, constant boil.

The use of a double boiler makes it much easier to maintain the right temperature for stewing. The water in the outer vessel boils, however the water in the inner vessel does not, since it is kept at a temperature slightly lower than the boiling point of the water from which it is heated by continual evaporation.

Frying, or frying meals in hot fat, is not recommended. Cooking makes fat less digestible than the rest of the food. Perhaps it is for this reason that nature has provided those foods that require the most prolonged cooking to be fit for use with only a small proportion of fat, and it would appear that any food to be subjected to a high degree of heat should not be mixed and compounded largely of fats.